MiCBT Research (Selected Studies)

Research and Publications on Mindfulness-integrated CBT.

Item Development and Expert Review of the Multidimensional Mindfulness Inventory

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Investigator: Arwen Dyer 

Supervisor: Dr Bruno Cayoun 

Co-supervisor: Associate Professor Clive Skilbeck 

Institute: University of Tasmania, School of Psychology 

Mindfulness has been defined “as a mental state[…]experienced as a heightened sensory awareness of the present moment, free from judgement, reactivity and identification to the experience” (Cayoun, 2011, p.1) and has been shown to be difficult to measure directly through self-report questionnaires, making the results of mindfulness-based interventions difficult to interpret.  The present study developed an item pool for a new questionnaire, the Multidimensional Mindfulness Inventory (MMI), intended to measure mindfulness-related skill sets by measuring multidimensional levels of human qualities known to develop as a result of mindfulness practice.  Items were based on thirteen skill sets derived from Buddhist psychology constructs, the Eightfold Noble Path and the Seven Factors of Enlightenment.  

Two hundred items were initially constructed and condensed according to specific criteria, ensuring good content (face and ecological) validity and inter-rater reliability.  The resulting 130 items were submitted to thirteen participants known to be experts in mindfulness practice, teaching and research for their expert peer review.  Participants rated each item and made recommendations.  As anticipated, five items per skill set with a mean endorsement score above 2.00 ("moderately endorse”) on a 5-point Likert scale were retained.  Inter-item correlations were often moderate to high and statistically significant, but considered as trends only due to the limited sample.  Additionally, there was a strong degree of similarity between all endorsement scores according to Kendall’s Concordance Analyses.  Retained items were re-worded according to participants’ recommendations and item development criteria, which improved content validity.  This resulted in a 65-item pool that future studies can use for psychometric analysis. 

The Efficacy of MiCBT for Family Carers and indirect benefits for their Care Recipients

Monday, May 07, 2012

Investigator: Ticia Glass 

Supervisor: Dr Bruno Cayoun 

Co-supervisorAssociate Professor Greg Hannan 

Institution: University of Tasmania, School of Psychology (MPsych research)    

Research indicates that therapeutic techniques involving mindfulness can result in health benefits for people with psychological or chronic physical conditions. The purpose of this study is to compare the potential benefits experienced by Carers who undertake Mindfulness-integrated Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (MiCBT) with those who undergo standard counselling services offered through Carers Tasmania. The current study will help determine whether these benefits are indirectly experienced by care recipients.

The differential effects of three mindfulness techniques: mindfulness of breath, body-scan and everyday mindfulness

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Investigator: Marise Fallon 

Supervisor: Dr Bruno Cayoun 

Co-supervisorAssociate Professor Greg Hannan

Institution:University of Tasmania, School of Psychology (MA research)  

This study investigated 3 important aspects of mindfulness training; mindfulness of breath (MOB), body scanning (BS) and applied practice (AP) of mindfulness in daily actions. An important and yet unanswered question is the differential benefits that each of these techniques produce. 

The study aimed to help clarify what best mechanisms of action should be emphasised during training. In small groups of 8 to 12 people, 268 participants recruited from the general community were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, body-scanning, mindfulness of breath and mindfulness in daily actions and attended an 8-week course, with 2-hour weekly classes. The dependant variables included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Baer et al., 2006). 

Full data collected from 100 trainees at four time points (pre-training, post-training, 3-month and 6-month follow-up) showed that all three techniques led to significant improvements on all measures and didn’t seem to differ significantly from each other, except when age was added as covariate: Participants aged 46 and over benefitted significantly more from body-scanning than from other mindfulness methods on the emotion regulation scale. This may have implications for clinical groups, where teaching clients to regulate emotion to address crises and prevent relapse is of central interest.

A psychometric analysis of the Mindfulness-based Self Efficacy Scale (MSES)

Monday, January 31, 2011

Investigator: Natasha Kasselis 
Supervisor: Dr Bruno Cayoun 
Co-supervisor: Associate Professor Clive Skilbeck
Institution: University of Tasmania, School of Psychology (Fourth Year Research Proposal)

The present study developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the Mindfulness-based Self Efficacy Scale (MSES), which aims to measure skills arising from mindfulness-based practices before, during and after clinical interventions. This and previous studies have demonstrated that the MSES has high internal consistency (Chronbach Alpha = .86) and correlates well with other measures of mindfulness (KIMS, MAAS and FMI). 

This study consisted of 521 participants from the general community and the University of Tasmania. Of these, 100 participants went on to participate in the retest phase of the study.  Materials included the MSES, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), which is thought to measure the construct of mindfulness.  Results of an exploratory factor analysis found support for a six-factor model in a 22-item scale.  These factors were Emotion Regulation, Equanimity, Social Skills, Distress Tolerance, Taking Responsibility and Interpersonal Effectiveness.  All factors demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = .88) and construct validity by correlating with several constructs in ways that were consistent with theory. The MSES is able to differentiate well clinical from non-clinical populations, both statistically (p < .01) and clinically (g = .79). Norms for clinical and community groups are currently being collected. The MSES can be used online which provides automated scoring, norms comparisons and graphs, all exportable to a spreadsheet as .csv files.

Measuring Mindfulness in Clinical Populations: A Study of the Mindfulness Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES)

Monday, June 01, 2009

Investigator: Sally Francis  

Institute: Swinburne University & MiCBT Institute  

This study (N = 163) is part of a larger (MA) research project assessing various self-report measures of mindfulness; the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (Buchheld, Grossman, Wallach, 2001), the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003), the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (Baer, Smith & Allen, 2004), and the Mindfulness Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) (Cayoun & Freestun, 2003), and measures of well being. The MSES was specifically designed to measure the effects of mindfulness in clinical populations. This, and another study (N = 1250), found that the MSES has high internal consistency (Chronbach Alpha = .86) and correlates well with the three other measures of mindfulness. A survey of a community sample (N = 101) also showed that the MSES clearly differentiates clinical from non-clinical samples. The results suggest that the MSES is a valid and reliable measure of self-efficacy associated with mindfulness training in clinical populations. Clinicians and researchers interested in the research can contact the principal author: Sally Francis.

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