MiCBT Research (Selected Studies)

Research and Publications on Mindfulness-integrated CBT.

Development and Validation of the Equanimity Scale-16

Friday, December 20, 2019

Holly Rogers1*, Alice Shires1, 2 and Bruno Cayoun2

1 University of Technology, Sydney, NSW Australia
2 MiCBT Institute, Hobart, TAS Australia


Objectives: Equanimity is a non-reactive attitude that is increasingly recognized as a central component of mindfulness practice and a key mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions that is currently lacking means of measurement. The present study aimed to develop a self-report measure of equanimity, explore its underlying factor structure, validity and reliability. 

Methods: Participants consisted of 223 adults from the general community (84.8% females and 66.8% males, age range = 18-75), who completed a set of online questionnaires. An initial pool of 42 items was selected from existing mindfulness questionnaires and measures of related constructs, and subsequently reviewed by researchers and selected based on majority agreement on their construct validity.

Results: In agreement with past research, exploratory factor analysis revealed two underlying factors, Experiential Acceptance and Non-reactivity. A final 16-item measure showed good internal consistency ( = .88), test-retest reliability (n=73; r = .87, p < .001) over 2-6 weeks, and convergent and divergent validity, illustrated by significant correlations in the expected direction with the Nonattachment Scale (Sahdra et al. 2010), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (Lovibond and Lovibond 1995), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al. 1985) and Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons and Gaher 2005).

Conclusion: Based on this initial study, the Equanimity Scale-16 appears to be a valid and reliable self-report measure, which can be used to assess trait equanimity and progress during mindfulness-based interventions, and to assist in the investigation of their underlying mechanisms.

(Submitted for publication)
*Corresponding author

Effects of Mindfulness-integrated CBT on selective attention and frontal lobe EEG asymmetry in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls

Monday, December 16, 2019

Fazilat-Pour, M.1, Atefeh, F.1, Cayoun, B. A.2*

1 Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 MiCBT Institute, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia


Background: Frontal lobe EEG asymmetry has been shown to predict one’s tendencies towards approach versus avoidance and related affective states. This study examines the effects of Mindfulness-integrated Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MiCBT) on selective attention and related executive functions and on frontal lobe EEG asymmetry in 24 adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) referred to the Kerman Multiple Sclerosis charity and 20 healthy controls.

Method: Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method. Both MS and control participants were each randomly allocated to two groups, forming two (MiCBT) intervention groups (nMS=14), nhealthy=14) and two control groups (nMS=10, nhealthy=10). All participants completed the classic version of the Stroop task followed by an assessment of frontal EEG asymmetry before and after the intervention.

Results: The results showed that selective attention and frontal lobe frequency EEG increased in the MiCBT groups but not in the control groups. In addition, the MS and healthy participants in the MiCBT groups displayed increased frequency in the beta band (13-30 Hz) on the left frontal lobe, suggesting increased positive emotions in these groups; this effect did not occur in the control groups.

Discussion: Although replication studies are needed, these early findings indicate that MiCBT may be an intervention that improves selective attention and positive emotions in people with MS and healthy individuals in the general community.

(Manuscript in preparation)
*Corresponding author

Differential efficacy of MiCBT, MCT, ACT, and CBT in decreasing OCD symptoms: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Wednesday, December 04, 2019

Derakhtkar, A.1, Fazilat-Pour, M.1, Cayoun, B. A.2*

1 Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 MiCBT Institute, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia


Background: While various cognitive and behavioral approaches have shown varying degrees of efficacy in reducing the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a lack of comparative studies on their effects. This randomized controlled study compared the effects of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT), Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT), Metacognitive Therapy (MCT), and Mindfulness-integrated CBT (MiCBT) on the symptoms of 100 adults with OCD.

Method: All participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups (MiCBT, MCT, ACT, and CBT) and a control group and filled in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale at three time points (pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-up).

Results: The results showed that all four interventions were efficacious in the short-term decrease of OCD symptoms, but only participants in the MiCBT and ACT groups maintained their therapeutic gains at follow-up. In addition, there was no significant difference in the long-term efficacy between the MCT and CBT approaches.

Discussion: According to these early results, MiCBT and ACT appear to be preferred approaches than MCT and CBT for reducing OCD symptoms. We discuss the possible active mechanisms causing these differences and the importance of replication studies.

(Manuscript in preparation)
*Corresponding author

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